1: A yellow fever vaccination
certificate is needed from tourists over 1 year of age arriving
within 6 days from infected areas. Those countries formerly classified
as endemic by the World Health Organization (WHO)are considered
by the Malaysian authorities to be infected areas.
2: The WHO guidelines issued in 1973 states a cholera vaccination
certificate is not a condition of entry to Malaysia, although it
may be needed if traveling on to a cholera-infected country. Outbreaks
have been reported in Malaysia recently. See the Health appendix.
3: Typhoid exists, especially in the rural areas.
4: Malaria exists in certain isolated inland regions. Urban and
coastal areas are considered safe. The exception being Sabah where
the risk of the malignant falciparum form is present throughout
the year. The falciparum strain is highly resistant to chloroquine
and resistant to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine.
All water should be regarded as being contaminated. Water used for
drinking or making ice should be boiled or otherwise sterilized.
Milk is not pasteurized and should also be boiled. Tinned or powdered
is available but make sure that it is reconstituted with purified
water. Avoid dairy products that are made from un boiled milk. Eat
well cooked meat and fish that is served hot. Salad, pork, and mayonnaise
carry increased risk. Vegetables should be cooked and fruits peeled.
It is generally considered safe to drink water straight from the
tap; however, visitors who are unused to the Malaysian way of life
should adhere to the guidelines above.
Hepatitis A, C and E is present and
hepatitis B is hyper-endemic.
Epidemics of dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis
occur in urban and rural areas. Immunization against TB, tetanus,
diphtheria, hepatitis A and E is advised.
The risk of rabies is higher in certain areas. For those
at high risk, vaccination before travel should be considered. If
you are bitten, seek medical help at once. For more advice, consult
the Health appendix.