1) A yellow
fever vaccination certificate is mandatory for tourists
more than 1 years old who arrive within 6 days of traveling to infected
2) According to WHO guidelines issued in 1973, a cholera
vaccination certificate is not required to enter Vietnam. However,
cholera is an extremely bad risk in Vietnam and precautions are
highly recommended. The latest advice should be sought before deciding
whether or not to receive a vaccination. Medical opinion is split
over its effectiveness. For additional details, read the Health
3) Vaccination against typhoid is recommended.
4) Malaria risk is present all year round everywhere
aside from urban areas, the Red River delta and the coastal plains
north of Nha Trang. The highest risk is in the southern provinces
of Ca Mau and Bac Lieu, and highland areas. The malignant falciparum
form is said to be extremely resistant to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine.
Food & drink
All water should be considered as being possibly contaminated. Water
used for brushing teeth, drinking, or making ice must first be boiled
or sterilised. Milk should be boiled as it is unpasteurised. Powdered
or tinned milk is available and is recommended, but make sure that
it's reconstituted with clean water. Avoid dairy products that may
have been made from un boiled milk. Only well-cooked meat and fish,
especially served hot should be eaten. Pork, salad and mayonnaise
may carry high risk. Fruit should be peeled and Vegetables be cooked.
(schistosomiasis) is endemic in the Mekong delta. Don't swim or
paddle in fresh water. Chlorinated and well maintained swimming
pools are safe.
Japanese encephalitis is a risk in rural areas and in Hanoi.
A vaccine is available and travellers should consult their doctor
Hepatitis A, B
and E occur; take precautions.
fever frequently occurs, and filariasis is always present
in some rural areas.
Typhoid fever, amoebic
and bacillary dysentery sometimes occur.
and plague rarely occur
is present. For those at high risk, vaccination before arrival is
recommended. If you are bitten, seek medical advice immediately.
For more information, read the Health appendix.
Hospitals are available in larger towns
and cities, and health centres are available in all the
provinces, but facilities are limited throughout
the country and there is a shortage of medicines. Health
insurance is very necessary and should include coverage
for emergency evacuation by air. Immediate cash payment
is required for services.