All water should be considered as being a potential health risk.
Water used for brushing teeth, drinking or making ice should have
first been boiled or otherwise sterilised. Contaminated tap water
contains high prevalence of gastrointestinal infections. The water
supply in St Petersburg has been linked to giardiasis.
Milk is pasteurised and dairy products are safe for ingestion. Eat
only well-cooked meat and fish, preferably served hot. Pork, salad
and mayonnaise might carry increased risk. Vegetables should be
cooked and fruits should be peeled.
Dysentery is quite common
throughout the country.
Hepatitis A does
Outbreaks of diphtheria have been reported. Consult
doctors regarding inoculation before travelling to the Russian Federation.
Tick-borne typhus has been reported from the
east and central Siberia. Tick-borne encephalitis
and Lyme disease occurs in forested areas throughout
the Russian Federation. Vaccination is, therefore, advisable.
Outbreaks of Japanese encephalitis has been reported
from the southeast.
Leishmaniasis can also occur in the south.
Outbreaks of meningitis has been reported from
Rabies is present and increasing,
and for those at high risk, vaccination before arrival must be considered.
If bitten, seek medical advice without delay.
Visitors staying for more than 3 months must produce a certificate
proving they are HIV-negative. Certification requirements are exacting
and detailed; a medical examination may also be required. Foreign
tests may be acceptable under certain conditions, kindly check details
with the embassy.
The highly developed health service provides medical treatment free
of charge for all citizens. If a traveller is ill during a booked
tour, emergency treatment is free, with small sums to be paid for
medicines and hospital treatment. If a longer stay than originally
planned becomes necessary because of the illness, the visitor must
pay for all further treatment. This could be very expensive; air
evacuation can cost up to £80,000.
All visitors are strongly advised to have full medical cover that
includes medical evacuation as well. It is also advisable to take
a supply of medicines that are likely to be required (check first
if they may be imported legally). A reciprocal health care agreement
is in operation between the UK and the Russian Federation, allowing
citizens to receive treatment free of charge. Private medical care
can be quite expensive.